Analytical Yoga
Analytical Yoga




from my book Yoga: An Analytical Release


Quarter I




1.      Now is undertaken the authority/discipline of yoga for exposition.

2.      Yoga is inhibition (nirodha) of mental processes (chitta-vrittis).

3.      Then is the establishment of Seer Self (Drashtri) in essential/own nature.

4.      Otherwise, there results conformity (identification) with mental processes.

5.      Mental processes are of five types.  These further are of two types - producing misery[1] and not producing misery.

6.      These mental processes are right knowledge (pramana), illusion (viparyaya), fancy (vikalpa), sleep (nidra), and memory (smriti).

7.      Process of right knowledge (pramana) involves direct perception, inference, and scriptural and other authorities.

8.      Illusion (viparyaya) is false knowledge in the sense that perceived form or characteristic is not inherent in the object.  [An actual object is misjudged here.]

9.      Fancy (vikalpa) is image or concept of an object that looks probable but does not exist.  [Object of fancy is pseudo.]

10.  Mental process sleep (nidra) rests on the notion of non-existence of objects.  [It is dreamless sleep, or NREM (non-rapid eye movement) phase of sleep.]

11.  Memory (smriti) is reminding past experience of an object.

12.  Inhibition (nirodha) of mental process is brought about by practice and detachment (vairagya).

13.  Practice is effort for steadiness.  [This effort is basically commitment.]

14.  And practice maintained with dedication and uninterrupted in time gets firmly established.

15.  Self-mastery in the sense of freedom from thirst or greed (Trishna) for perceived and heard-of[2] objects is called detachment (vairagya) of subjugation kind.

16.  Next comes superior (or instinctive) detachment which is indeed guna-indifference[3] delivering one from worldly selfish concerns.  This detachment comes from within — from knowledge of Purusha or Self (Purusha-khyati).

17.  [With subjugation comes] cognitive samadhi which progresses through forms of speculation/vacillation, reflection/deliberation, exultation (ananda), and self-absorption (asmita, I-am-ness).

18.  And with practised cessation of all desires (i.e., superior detachment) [or with ceaseless inhibition of all mental processes] comes the other, non-cognitive samadhi in which impressions (samskaras) may remain [in order to carry on current life].

19.  ‘Bodiless Beings’ and ‘Beings Absorbed in Nature’ classes of yogis realise this non-cognitive samadhi from birth by virtue of their having attained ananda and asmita samadhis, respectively, in their previous life.

20.  For others practising inhibition now, this non-cognitive samadhi succeeds trust, perseverance, recollection (smriti), cognitive samadhi, and wisdom.

21.  It is closer for those who ardently practise it.

22.  A further three-fold distinction is there among those ardently practising: mild, moderate, and intense.

23.  Alternatively, yoga (samadhi) is realised from surrender to Lord Almighty (Ishvara-pranidhana).

24.  Lord (Ishvara) can be described as universal[4] Being or Consciousness (Purusha) untouched by either of Kleshas (Miseries), acts (karmas), fruits (consequences), and impressions (samskaras).

25.  He is the ultimate seat or nucleus of omniscient intelligence.  [He is the Knower (Seer, Consciousness) within all beings.]

26.  With no gaps in time, He is guide (guru) of even the most ancient teachers.

27.  He is expressed through sacred syllabic sound Om ().  [Three constituent letters a, u, m of Om correspond to individual’s roles or states as Waker, Dreamer, and Sleeper, respectively.]

28.  To intone is to realise His essence as Self within [witness of, and distinct from, Drishya, phenomena, and roles].

29.  This provides true and dispassionate perspective of life; establishes one in Self; and removes obstacles in the path of yoga.

30.  Illness, sloth, indecision, carelessness, laziness, failure to withdraw (sensuality), delusional thinking, failure to attain Samadhi, and failure to retain Samadhi: these mental projections  are the obstacles (distractions) in the path of yoga.

31.  Pain (duhkha), rancour, physical restlessness, and irregular breathing  accompany these projections.

32.  To overcome these, practise one principle [like Isha-vasya (all as manifestation of one) and fairness].

33.  Mind settles on cultivation of: friendliness toward joyful ones, instead of jealousy and envy; compassion toward suffering ones, instead of apathy and fault-finding; happiness at (or willing cooperation with) pious people, instead of deserting and purging them; and indifference (non-cooperation) toward impious people, instead of helping and approving their acts;

34.  Or [achieve the same] with breath [repeatedly] expelled and blocked out;

35.  Or attentive physical or mental activity undertaken restores stability of mind;

36.  So too, attention on the inner radiance [Consciousness!], which is free from sorrow[5];

37.  So does company of (or attuning to) someone wise who mentally harbours no attachment [and greed] for objects and status or who has fulfilled purpose of life;

38.  Likewise, if you include dream and sleep (nidra) in perspective [and correct your bias for waking life];

39.  Or, lastly, achieve the same through Contemplation (dhyana) of whatever appealing or esteemed.  [Contemplation is not limited to a few, countable ways!]

40.  His mastery [what was called ‘subjugation’] extends from objective (gross) atoms to subjective (subtle) individuality.

41.  With mental processes[6] subdued, mind — like a flawless crystal absorbing whatever placed before it — assumes the form of that to which it is applied, whether cogniser, process of cognition, or object of cognition.  Such conscious absorption [which was the subject matter of sutras 35-39 supra] is samadhi itself.

42.  There, in rough speculation (vacillation) type, object of attention is crowded by notions of words, meanings, and intentions/theories.  [It can also be translated as with speculation.]

43.  [Next] comes smooth speculation (vacillation) with confusion of memory (smriti) abated.  It is characterised as: (1) shining forth objects objectively, as they are; and (2) seemingly devoid or forgetful of own nature.  [It can also be translated as without speculation.  Here, knowledge becomes objective and humble (non-authoritative).[7]]

44.  In the same fashion, reflection (deliberation) associated with subtle objects of attention can be explained as rough (or with) and smooth (or without).

45.  Range of subtlety of objects extends to formless, elemental Nature (Prakriti).

46.  These four are Samadhi but are with seed (i.e., with pitfalls of Kleshas and Samskaras).

47.  With refinement of the fourth Samadhi smooth reflection [i.e., when even thought of no-thought has disappeared], Self reveals itself (or there is serenity within).

48.  There, wisdom is replete with Truth [events are seen as they are actually unfolding].[8]

49.  Unlike usual knowledge, this wisdom does not employ authority and inference obsessively.  It is truly objective and comprehensive in quality.

50.  Impression (samskara) born of it blocks further impressions (samskaras).

51.  On inhibition of (or not yearning for) that (blissful) impression even — from inhibition (nirodha) of all — there emerges the [ultimate] Seedless Samadhi (i.e., one free from potential Kleshas and Samskaras).


Quarter II


Sadhana (Means)


1.      Tapas (austerity, endurance), Svadhyaya (study of Self), and Ishvara-pranidhana (surrender to Lord Almighty): these three constitute practical path to yoga for … 

2.      … realisation  of Samadhi and attenuation of Kleshas.

3.      Avidya (Ignorance of Reality), Ego (asmita), Attachment (raga), Aversion or Hatred (dvesha), and Yearning for Life (abhinivesha) are the five Miseries (Kleshas).

4.      Avidya acts as breeding ground for the latter four Miseries, whether they be dormant, attenuated, suspended, or operative (active).

5.      Avidya (Ignorance of Reality) can be defined as perceiving or misjudging impermanent, impure, pain (duhkha), and non-self as permanent, pure, pleasure (sukha), and Self (Atma), respectively.  [Any of these four misjudgements is Avidya.]

6.      Ego (asmita) is assumed (iva) identity (oneness) between cogniser-faculty (Drashtri/Knower) and cognition-faculty (senses, mind, intellect, and also knowledge).

7.      Attachment (raga) is rooted in or feeds on pleasure (sukha).

8.      Hatred or Aversion (dvesha) is rooted in or feeds on pain (duhkha).

9.      Yearning for life, or habitual fear of death (abhinivesha) feeds on itself and remains deep-seated in learned as well.

10.  Those subtle Miseries are escaped with roll-back (or self-fulfilment).

11.  Their processes are escaped with Contemplation called Dhyana [or with Viveka].

12.  Impressions of past good and bad actions forming merit-demerit residuum or reservoir  are rooted in Miseries (Kleshas).  These impressions manifest (bear fruit) in current and unseen (future) lives.

13.  As long as root [Kleshas — rather Avidya] is there, fruit is inevitable in the forms of births, life spans, and experiences (bhogas) …

14.  … which produce happiness and sorrow depending on excess of merit and demerit in balance, respectively.

15.  For reasons of pain from change/transformation, anguish, and impressions (samskaras) and by virtue of conflicting  guna-processes (guna-vrittis): all  is indeed pain (duhkha) to vivekin (man of Viveka).

16.  Heya (literally, to be escaped) stands for pain (duhkha) yet to come.

17.  Samyoga (Conjunction) is lack of discrimination with regard to Drashtri (literally, seer/knower) and Drishya (literally, seeable/knowable).  It is heya-hetu (cause of pain).

18.  Drishya [world] is described as: (I) having the attributes (gunas) of sattva [which stands for light, knowledge], rajas [which stands for motion, desire, anger, greed, passion, activity], and tamas [which stands for mass, inertia, dullness, ignorance]; (II) assuming form of gross elements, senses, and ego (personality); and (III) providing experience (bhoga) to the ignorant and liberation (apavarga) to the enlightened.

19.  Gunas evolve in four steps: sixteen particulars[9], six non-particulars[10], mere form (Great Principle[11]); and formless Prakriti (Nature).

20.  Drashtri (Seer) is just seeing/knowing (consciousness) which even though pure resembles or is identified with objects like thoughts etc.  [Fall from purity is the result of oversight of Viveka!]

21.  Drishya exists verily for the sake of or by virtue of Drashtri.[12]

22.  Drishya (world) disappears for the enlightened one[13], but it commonly exists for others. [Others have not realised it as appearance so far!]

23.  Samyoga serves to reveal distinction between possessor and possessed (or Self and non-self).

24.  Avidya is the cause (hetu) of this Samyoga (Drashtri-Drishya Conjunction).

25.  As Avidya ceases, so does Samyoga; this is Escape (hana), or Liberation (Kaivalya[14]) of Drashtri from the painful world.

26.  Unbroken display/practice of Viveka (Drashtri-Drishya Distinction[15]) is the means of escape (hana-upaya).

27.  Wisdom of Vivekin is ultimate, seven-typed.

28.  On destruction of impurities with observance of yoga limbs, knowledge climaxes in Viveka.

29.  Yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi: these eight limbs form Ashtanga Yoga.  [Caution: it is not eight-staged.]

30.  Ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truthfulness, integrity), asteya (non-stealing, honesty), brahmacharya (broadminded, devout life), and aparigraha (non-covetousness) form the first limb.  They are called yamas (or laws of life).

31.  Yamas are mandatory — to be observed by all regardless of time, place, birth/caste, or eventuality.  They form a solemn vow.

32.  Shaucha (purity), santosha (contentment), tapas (austerity, endurance), svadhyaya (study of scriptures aimed at knowledge of Self), and Ishvara-pranidhana (surrender to Lord Almighty): they are niyamas (or personal rules), the second limb.

33.  When challenged by negative (tempting) arguments, reflect over the opposite.

34.  Violence etc. - whether done, caused, or condoned and whether mild, moderate, or intense - are incited by greed, anger, and delusion.  They result in endless  ignorance  and pain (duhkha).  Thus is reflected the opposite.

35.  On establishment in ahimsa, life around devotee becomes hostility-free.

36.  Establishment in satya makes actions bear fruits.

37.  With establishment in asteya, riches of world (literally, all jewels) converge at him.

38.  With establishment in brahmacharya comes increase in potency.

39.  With steadiness in aparigraha comes insight into purpose (wherefore) of life/birth.

40.  From shaucha arises disenchantment with one’s own body and contact with others (e.g., coitus) …

41.  and also come along: mental (intentional) purity, beneficence, one-pointedness, mastery of senses, and fitness for self-realisation (Atma-darshana).

42.  From santosha is gained unparalleled happiness (sukha).

43.  On elimination of impurities from tapas comes perfection of body and senses.

44.  Svadhyaya brings communion with personal, favourite deity. [It rather implants cherished values and virtues!]

45.  From Ishvara-pranidhana  comes perfection of samadhi.

46.  The third limb, asana (physical posture) affords steadiness and repose (sukha) …

47.  … through relaxation of effort and absorption in the Infinite, Absolute [Brahma].

48.  Thence, dualities of life such as pleasure-pain and hot-cold do not disturb the yoga devotee (not simply asana fan).

49.  Asana-onward [with mind and body settled], there arises the fourth limb, pranayama (life-expansive energy; or higher dimension/source of life energy) associated with natural suspension of flow of breath.  [Rapid and shallow breathing is an indicator of disturbed mood and emotions!]

50.  Pranayama can be distinguished in terms of location, duration, and number; and inhaling, exhaling, and stalling (retention of breath) can be proactively regulated in order to make it deep and subtle.

51.  Sphere of the fourth Pranayama lies beyond incoming and outgoing breaths.  [It is the natural Pranayama of sutra 49.]

52.  Thence veil of light gets destroyed.

53.  Besides, there arises fitness of mind for dharana (concentration), the sixth yoga limb.

54.  When senses no longer savour objects, they assume the form of mind.  This is pratyahara (withdrawal of senses), the fifth limb of yoga.

55.  Thence arises absolute mastery of senses.


Quarter III


Vibhuti (Glory)

 [Powers elude power-seekers!  They naturally rush in resolved minds!]


1.      Attention held on a definite locus [physical, here-now object/activity] is dharana (concentration), the sixth limb of yoga.  [Objects far-away in space or time can turn fanciful and therefore distractive!]

2.      When object of attention there [in dharana] is uniform, it is dhyana (contemplation), the seventh limb.  [It is a longer session of dharana on a single object/activity.]

3.      Further, when object of attention shines forth as it is [objectively] and in a self-forgetful state (as if devoid of own nature)[16] — it is samadhi (meditation), the eighth limb of yoga.

4.      When the three: dharana, dhyana, and samadhi are concurrent, it is samyama. 

5.      From perfection (command) in it, wisdom dawns.

6.      It should be applied in various states of chitta.

7.      Last three limbs are internal in relation to the former, five limbs.

8.      However, they [three limbs] are external in relation to Seedless Samadhi.

9.      Nirodha transformation of mind happens the moment impression (samskara) of extroversion is overpowered by emerging impression (samskara) of nirodha (inhibition, detachment).

10.  Its tranquil flow is by reasons of the nirodha samskara.

11.  Samadhi transformation of mind is the disappearance of all-pointedness (or dispersiveness) and rise of one-pointedness in mind.

12.  Thereafter comes one-pointed transformation of mind in which subsiding and rising objects remain similar.

13.  Likewise are described transformations of characteristic (dharma), time-phase, and state seen in the gross elements and senses.

14.  The object in which reside quiescent [no more active], active, and impending (yet to be active) characteristics (dharmas) is called object characterised[17].

15.  Different sequence produces difference in transformations.

16.  From samyama on three transformations comes knowledge of past and future.

17.  Words, meanings, and purports overlap and delude.  However, from samyama on their distinctiveness comes understanding of sounds of all beings or creatures.

18.  From samyama on samskaras (impressions) comes knowledge of previous lives/births.

19.  From samyama on someone’s thought comes knowledge of other’s mind or intention.

20.  However object of intention of the other can not be known; that can not be object of samyama.

21.  From samyama on the form of body is hampered perceptibility of body, with contact between eye and light severed.  Thus is achieved imperceptibility of body.

22.  Karma fruition is fast or slow.  From samyama on it or from portents is gained foreknowledge of death.

23.  From samyama on friendliness etc. [mentioned in I 33] arises fortitude.

24.  Samyama on strengths produces strengths viz. of elephant.

25.  From direction of light of inner radiance [mentioned in I 36] can be gained clairvoyance of subtle, hidden, and remote objects.

26.  Knowledge of worlds or Solar System comes from samyama on the Sun.

27.  From samyama on the Moon comes knowledge of constellations (or arrays of stars).

28.  From samyama on the Pole Star comes knowledge of their motions with reference to it.

29.  From samyama on navel plexus (also called solar plexus) comes knowledge of bodily systems.

30.  From samyama on throat cavity comes cessation of hunger and thirst.

31.  From samyama on tortoise tube [below the throat cavity] is gained steadiness.

32.  From samyama on the light in head, realised ones reveal themselves.

33.  Alternatively, from intuitive perception [born of Samadhi], everything can be known.

34.  From samyama on the heart (essential Self!) are comprehended mind and its processes.

35.  Bhoga[18] (experience; enjoyment of objects) arises from oversight of distinction of sattva[19] and Purusha

(Drashtri, Self) and exists for the sake of another.  It is Parartha (relative). [That is why bhoga is regarded differently by different people!] Whereas Purusha is revealed from samyama on ‘what exists for its own sake or by itself’ (Svartha; absolute existence or truth).

36.  From that revelation of Purusha, intuitive hearing, touch, vision, taste, and smell arise.

37.  They are indeed obstacles in samadhi, but are seen as perfections (powers) by extroverts.  [Or they are bye-products of Samadhi and should not be aspired as separate ideals!]

38.  From loosened karmic bond and from awareness of movements of mind is enabled entry of mind in others’ bodies.

39.  Triumph of udana (the air circulating in head) produces non-contact with water, mud, thorns, etc. and ascension to heavens at the time of death.

40.  Triumph of samana (the air distributing food equally to body) produces glow or halo.

41.  Samyama on the relation between hearing and space produces supernatural hearing.

42.  From samyama on the relation between body and space and from mental absorption on the lightness of cotton  comes ability to traverse through space.

43.  The Great Without-Body is the mental process that operates outside body and without imagination.  Samyama on that destroys veil of light.

44.  Samyama on gross forms, characteristics, essences, relationship, and purpose brings triumph of gross elements.

45.  Thence arise (1) eight attainments such as attenuation etc., (2) elegance of body, and (3) non-obstruction by the characteristics of gross elements [e.g., fire does not burn].

46.  Beauty, grace, strength, and adamantine hardness — these constitute bodily elegance.

47.  From samyama on power of perception, essential nature, I-am-ness (asmita), relationship, and purpose comes triumph of senses.

48.  Therefrom emerge (1) swiftness as of mind, (2) operation independent of physical organs, and (3) conquest of Nature.

49.  One who has realised distinctness of sattva[20] and Purusha only enjoys omnipotence and omniscience.

50.  From detachment even toward that [Viveka], seed of evil [Kleshas] is destroyed — thus arises Kaivalya.

51.  Fearing re-emergence of evil, one should not take interest or pride in alluring invitations of celestial deities (or influential beings).

52.  From samyama on moments and their succession[21] comes knowledge born of Discrimination (Viveka).

53.  Thereby can be distinguished two things (in time), when they are otherwise similar in class (genus), characteristics, or location.

54.  That discriminative knowledge is:  intuitive or clairvoyant; knowing all objects and in all states; and unlike usual, progressive knowledge [that grows in volume over time and is not complete at any time].

55.  (Even otherwise or anyway) when sattva and Purusha are cognised with equal clarity, there is Kaivalya (Enlightenment, or Liberation).


Quarter IV




1.       Perfections (powers) result by virtue of birth, drugs, incantations, austerity (tapas), and samadhi.

2.      Transformation into another life-state results from overflow of natural causes (Prakriti).  [Purusha (Self) is not an agent of changes.]

3.      Incidental causes do not change the nature (prakriti) of things or set things into action/motion, but only remove their obstacles, like a farmer does not irrigate by carrying water to fields but by removing barriers in the way of water.  [Powers remove obstacles and do not produce samadhi.  Open the door and let the sunshine in!]

4.      Five created minds arise from ego (asmita) only.

5.      One mind directs many created minds into various activities.

6.      Among five perfected minds, mind born of dhyana (or samadhi) is free from impressions.  [This mind is taintless.]

7.      Karma of Yogi is neither pure (white) nor impure (black); but others’ are three-fold (i.e., pure, impure, and mixed).

8.      Compatible with fruits of three-fold karma arise desires or aspirations (or fond memories).

9.      Memories (smritis) and impressions (samskaras) being basically similar lurk around despite interruptions by birth, place, and time.

10.  They are beginningless as self-interest is ever present.

11.  Held together by cause (hetu), effect (phala), substratum (mind), and object, they (impressions) cease as these four cease.

12.  Past and future indeed exist within an object as different ways or forms of characteristics (dharmas) operating at a certain time [as some having operated and some yet to operate].

13.  These characteristics are manifest or subtle and embody the attributes (gunas).

14.  From uniqueness of transformation emerges entity of an object.

15.  Same object assumes different ways or forms due to difference in minds. [Things exist more as ways of thinking.]

16.  But, if thing is postulated as a mental-construct alone, then what would happen to it when that object is not perceived!  [Object should have physically disappeared!  But that is not the case.  This sutra should be read with yoga sutra II 22.]

17.  Object is known or unknown depending on mind being coloured by it or not.  [For us things exist when known and do not when not known!  Yoga benefits one who knows yoga, and not others.]

18.  Mental processes (chitta-vrittis) are always known to its (mind’s) lord (prabhu) Purusha — latter being changeless.

19.  It (mind) is not self-intimating, being knowable (drishya).

20.  Two (mind and object) can not be cognised simultaneously.

21.  Mind can be an object (drishya) of another subtler mind! — if this is postulated, this results in endless regress of cognisors and cognitions; and consequent confusion of memories.

22.  Idea of self in mind is obtained when mind assumes that form of Consciousness (Chiti) which is unchanging (not moving from object to object).  [This is obtained in a steady mind.]

23.  Mind coloured by Seer (Drashtri) and seeable (drishya) is multipurpose.  [For laypersons, mind is self and knower of objects.  On the other hand, yogi knows mind as object of and different from Self.  Simply said, yogi watches his mind and thus distinguishes Self from mind.[22]]

24.  Though variegated by innumerable impressions, mind is not independent or competent by itself.  It exists for the sake of another. [It is Parartha.]

25.  For one who has realised the distinction comprehensively (or exclusively), there is cessation of cogitation or actualisation of Self (Atman).[23]

26.  Then, viveka-inclined mind accelerates toward Kaivalya.

27.  In their intervals appear other thoughts due to impressions (samskaras).

28.  Escape (hana) from them is similar to that stated for Miseries (Kleshas).

29.  One disinterested even in the Highest Knowledge and scrupulously practising Viveka realises Bounty-of-Virtue Samadhi.

30.  Thence arises cessation of Miseries (Kleshas) and activities (karma).

31.  Then, freed from all impurities, knowledge becomes infinite and there is hardly anything left to be known.

32.  Thence comes cessation of transformation process (krama, or succession) of attributes (gunas), having fulfilled their purpose.

33.  Succession (krama) can be defined as: that is recognised as transformation stages  concurrent with time (moments).

34.  Attributes (gunas) when left with no purpose of Purusha to be served roll back (or dissolve).  This is Kaivalya, described as establishment in Self (own nature).  This is also called Power of Consciousness (Chiti[24]).  Finis.

[1] Word used in original sutra is suggestive of Klesha (Misery) which is to be discussed in Quarter II.

[2] Such as mentioned in scriptures

[3] For example, indifference to pleasure (sattva), pain (rajas), and delusion and inertia (tamas)

[4] The adjective viśesa can be explained as ‘nothing left out’ (or excluding nothing).

[5] Pain and sorrow arise from non-self (duality).

[6] Not necessarily ‘all’ mental processes

[7] Refer to chapter 2.5 for detailed explanation.

[8] A here-and-now interface

[9] Five gross elements (ether, air, fire, water, earth), five corresponding sense organs (ear, skin, eye, tongue, nose), five organs of action (hands, feet, larynx, organs of reproduction and excretion), and mind

[10] Ego-sense and five subtle elements (sound, touch, form, taste, smell)

[11] Intelligence (mahat) [but not Witness (sāksin)/Purusha/Drashtri]

[12] It is analogous to beauty!  As beauty is relative (it lies in the eye of the beholder), so too, Drishya (world) — it appears differently to different people.  For some, it disappears too as said in the next sutra.

[13] One who has realised purpose of life or who has no purpose of life to be fulfilled

[14] It is the state of aloneness without the plaintive yearning for company and possessions.

[15] This is also called Mind-Purusha Distinction (Sattva-Purusha Distinction) that stresses that mind in its pure form (sattva) is still Prakriti and distinct from Purusha.

[16] Knowing is one’s nature and not knowledge that keeps changing.  So there can be no claim for knowledge here (or seemingly not knowing).  Here knowledge becomes objective and humble (non-authoritative — free from dogma and self-conceit).

[17] dharmī or dharmin

[18] It is no different from Samyoga.  It is an illusory identification.

[19] It means mind, intellect, knowledge, righteousness, or essence.  See explanation for Sattva-Purusha Distinction in the footnote of yoga sutra II 26.

[20] See footnotes of yoga sutras II 26 and III 35.

[21] Two moments can not coincide.  One of the two has to be either antecedent or subsequent.  Either way, one moment becomes non-existent.  Concept of time as past and future is fanciful, hypothetical.  Moreover, no event is purely past, future, or present.  Same event can be past for one and future for other. 

[22] Consciousness is the perception of what passes in a man’s own mind. (John Locke)

[23] The word bhāva has two meanings: existence/state/entity and feeling/reflection.

[24] It does not change.  It does not move from object to object; rather objects are shown to It.  It is pure and infinite. [Sage Vyasa’s comments on yoga sutra I 2]

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